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Stages of the Neolithisation Process in South Central Europe.

Prof. Gheorghe Lazarovici and Magda Lazarovici
Resita Univeristy and Iasi Institute of Archaeology

This paper considers the Early Neolithic of Transylvania (Romania), with particular regard to the regions of Cluj and Bistrita.

The Authors will focus on two main aspects of the Neolithisation process: the importance of migration and the limited role of diffusion. Furthermore, they will analyse the role of the Mesolithic background in the appearance of the Neolithic, and the two cases of Soroca and the Earliest Linear Pottery Culture. Another point regards the Neolithisation of the Iron Gates, as reflected in the excavations at Lepenski Vir and Schela Cladovei.

Migration I. We will discuss the problem of the Earliest Monochrome pottery, according to the available radiocarbon results and assemblages from Greece and Macedonia, as well as Bulgaria.

Migration II. According to the radiocarbon results, it has been subdivided into two main stages (I and II), from which pottery and other assemblages have been systematically re-analysed.

Migration III. It is supposed to have developed from the Hacilar VI period in Anatolia. Parallels will be extended to Dimitrievic's “Ghirlandoid” phase and its diffusion in western Bulgaria.

Migration IV. In our opinion it is to be associated with both Vinca A and the “Polychromic phase” of the northern Danube. The absolute chronology of these two groups is still unclear.

We will also present the Polychromic phase migrations towards southern Transylvania, which took place in different stages: 1, Limba - Bordane (or Let); 2, linear Polychrome; 3, spiral Polychrome (Oltenia - N. Bulgaria). Gornea and Liubcova will be considered, based on relationships between Starcevo - Cris and Vinca A. Furthermore, the role played by Vinca A1-2 and Starcevo - Cris IIIB-IVA in the Neolithisation of peripheral areas (Transdanubia and Northern Hungary, Moldavia and Bessarabia) will also be analysed.

The informatic approach of the archaeological assemblages is considered of basic importance for the understanding of the above-mentioned processes.

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